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C Programming Tutorial (C++ PDF)

This C++ tutorial covers the details of C Programming Tutorial.IN This tutorial Every program is limited by the language which is used to write it. C is a programmer’s language. Unlike BASIC or Pascal, C was not written as a teaching aid, but as an implementation language. C is a computer language and a programming tool which has grown popular because programmers like it! It is a tricky language but a masterful one.

C Programming Tutorial.
Preface
Every program is limited by the language which is used to write it. C is a programmer’s language. Unlike BASIC or Pascal, C was not written as a teaching aid, but as an implementation language. C is a computer language and a programming tool which has grown popular because programmers like it! It is a tricky language but a masterful one. Sceptics have said that it is a language in which everything which can go wrong does go wrong. True, it does not do much hand holding, but also it does not hold anything back. If you have come to C in the hope of finding a powerful language for writing everyday computer programs, then you will not be disappointed. C is ideally suited to modern computers and modern programming.
Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . xi
1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 High Levels and Low Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Basic ideas about C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 The Compiler . . . . . . . . . .  . . 5
1.4 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.5 Use of Upper and Lower Case . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6 Declarations . . . . . . . . . .  . . 10
1.7 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 10
2 Reserved words and an example . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1 The printf() function . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2 Example Listing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3 Output . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 12
3 Operating systems and environments . . . . . . 13
3.1 Files and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2 Filenames . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 14
3.3 Command Languages and Consoles . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 15
4 Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 19
5 Programming style . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 21
6 The form of a C program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 26
7 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 27
7.1 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 27
7.2 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 27
7.3 Question . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 28
8 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 29
8.1 Structure diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.2 Program Listing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.3 Functions with values . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8.4 Breaking out early . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8.5 The exit() function . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8.6 Functions and Types . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.7 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 35
9 Variables, Types and Declarations . . . . . . . . . 37
9.1 Declarations . . . . . . . . . .  . . 38
9.2 Where to declare things . . . . . . . . . . 38
9.3 Declarations and Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9.4 Individual Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.4.1 char . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 40
9.4.2 Listing . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 41
9.4.3 Integers . . . . . . . . . .  . . 42
9.5 Whole numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.5.1 Floating Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.6 Choosing Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9.7 Assigning variables to one another . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9.8 Types and The Cast Operator . . . . . . . . . . 44
9.9 Storage class static and extern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.10 Functions, Types and Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . 48
9.11 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 49
10 Parameters and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
10.1 Declaring Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 51
10.2 Value Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
10.3 Functions as actual parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
10.4 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
10.5 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
10.6 Variable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
10.7 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
10.8 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 63
11 Scope : Local And Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
11.1 Global Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
11.2 Local Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
11.3 Communication : parameters . . . . . . . . . . 68
11.4 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
11.5 Style Note . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 69
11.6 Scope and Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
11.7 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 70
12 Preprocessor Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
12.1 Macro Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
12.2 When and when not to use macros with parameters . . . . . . . . . . 73
12.3 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
12.4 Note about #include. . . . . . . . . . . 74
12.5 Other Preprocessor commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
12.6 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 75
12.7 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 76
13 Pointers. . . . . . . . . . . . 77
13.1 ‘&’ and ‘*’ . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 78
13.2 Uses for Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
13.3 Pointers and Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
13.4 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
13.5 Types, Casts and Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
13.6 Pointers to functions . . . . . . . . . . . 84
13.7 Calling a function by pointer . . . . . . . . . . 85
13.8 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 86
14 Standard Output and Standard Input . . . . . 89
14.1 printf . . . . . . . . . . 90
14.2 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
14.3 Output . . . . . . . . . . 92
14.4 Formatting with printf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
14.5 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
14.6 Output . . . . . . . . . . 95
14.7 Special Control Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
14.8 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 96
14.9 scanf . . . . . . . . . . . 96
14.10 Conversion characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
14.11 How does scanf see the input? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
14.12 First account of scanf . . . . . . . . . . 98
14.13 The dangerous function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
14.14 Keeping scanf under control . . . . . . . . . . 99
14.15 Examples . . . . . . . . . .  . . 100
14.16 Matching without assigning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
14.17 Formal Definition of scanf . . . . . . . . . . 106
14.18 Summary of points about scanf . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
14.19 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 107
14.20 Low Level Input/Output . . . . . . . . . . . 108
14.20.1 getchar and putchar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
14.20.2 gets and puts . . . . . . . . . . 109
14.21 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 110
15 Assignments, Expressions and Operators
. . . . . . . . . . . . 111
15.1 Expressions and values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
15.2 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 113
15.3 Output . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 113
15.4 Parentheses and Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
15.5 Unary Operator Precedence . . . . . . . . . . 115
15.6 Special Assignment Operators ++ and -- . . . . . . . . . .  . 115
15.7 More Special Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . 116
15.8 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
15.9 Output . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 118
15.10 The Cast Operator . . . . . . . . . . . 118
15.11 Expressions and Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
15.12 Comparisons and Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
15.13 Summary of Operators and Precedence . . . . . . . . . .  . 121
15.14 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 122
16 Decisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
16.1 if . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
16.2 Example Listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
16.3 if ... else. . . . . . . . . . .  . 129
16.4 Nested ifs and logic . . . . . . . . . . 130
16.5 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
16.6 Stringing together if..else . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
16.7 switch: integers and characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
16.8 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
16.9 Things to try . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
17 Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
17.1 while . . . . . . . . . . 141
17.2 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
17.3 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
17.4 do..while. . . . . . . . . . .  . . 146
17.5 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
17.6 for . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
17.7 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
17.8 The flexible for loop . . . . . . . . . . . 151
17.9 Quitting Loops and Hurrying Them Up! . . . . . . . . . .  . 153
17.10 Nested Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
17.11 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 155
18 Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
18.1 Why use arrays? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
18.2 Limits and The Dimension of an array . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 159
18.3 Arrays and for loops . . . . . . . . . . . 160
18.4 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
18.5 Arrays Of More Than One Dimension . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 163
18.6 Arrays and Nested Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
18.7 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
18.8 Output of Game of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
18.9 Initializing Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
18.10 Arrays and Pointers . . . . . . . . . . 174
18.11 Arrays as Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
18.12 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 175
19 Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
19.1 Conventions and Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
19.2 Strings, Arrays and Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
19.3 Arrays of Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
19.4 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
19.5 Strings from the user . . . . . . . . . . 182
19.6 Handling strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
19.7 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
19.8 String Input/Output . . . . . . . . . . 188
19.8.1 gets() . . . . . . . . . .  188
19.8.2 puts() . . . . . . . . . .  189
19.8.3 sprintf() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
19.8.4 sscanf() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
19.9 Example Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
19.10 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 190
20 Putting together a program. . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
20.1 The argument vector . . . . . . . . . . 193
20.2 Processing options . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
20.3 Environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
21 Special Library Functions and Macros . . . 197
21.1 Character Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
21.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 198
21.3 Program Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
21.4 String Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . 201
21.5 Examples . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 204
21.6 Mathematical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
21.7 Examples . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 207
21.8 Maths Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
21.9 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 210
21.10 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 211
22 Hidden operators and values . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
22.1 Extended and Hidden =. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
22.2 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 215
22.3 Hidden ++ and -- . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
22.4 Arrays, Strings and Hidden Operators . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 217
22.5 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 218
22.6 Cautions about Style . . . . . . . . . . 219
22.7 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 220
22.8 Questions. . . . . . . . . . .  . . 221
23 More on data types . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 223
23.1 Special Constant Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
23.2 FILE . . . . . . . . . . . 224
23.3 enum . . . . . . . . . . . 224
23.4 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 225
23.5 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 227
23.6 Suggested uses for enum . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
23.7 void . . . . . . . . . . . 229
23.8 volatile . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 230
23.9 const . . . . . . . . . . 231
23.10 struct . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 232
23.11 union . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 232
23.12 typedef . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 232
23.13 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 233
24 Machine Level Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
24.1 Bit Patterns . . . . . . . . . .  235
24.2 Flags, Registers and Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
24.3 Bit Operators and Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
24.4 The Meaning of Bit Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
24.5 Shift Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
24.6 Truth Tables and Masking . . . . . . . . . . . 239
24.6.1 Complement ~. . . . . . . . . . . . 239
24.6.2 AND & . . . . . . . . . .  239
24.6.3 OR | . . . . . . . . . .  . . 239
24.6.4 XOR/EOR ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
24.7 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 241
24.8 Output . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 241
24.9 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 242
24.10 Example . . . . . . . . . .  . . 243
24.11 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 243
25 Files and Devices . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 245
25.1 Files Generally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
25.2 File Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
25.3 High Level File Handling Functions . . . . . . . . . . 247
25.4 Opening files . . . . . . . . . .  248
25.5 Closing a file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
25.6 fprintf(). . . . . . . . . . .  . 250
25.7 fscanf() . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 250
25.8 skipfilegarb() ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
25.9 Single Character I/O . . . . . . . . . . 251
25.10 getc() and fgetc() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
25.11 ungetc(). . . . . . . . . . .  . 252
25.12 putc() and fputc() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
25.13 fgets() and fputs() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
25.14 feof() . . . . . . . . . . 254
25.15 Printer Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
25.16 Example . . . . . . . . . .  . . 255
25.17 Output . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 258
25.18 Converting the example . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
25.19 Filing Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
25.20 Other Facilities for High Level Files . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 260
25.21 fread() and fwrite() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
25.22 File Positions: ftell() and fseek() . . . . . . . . . . . 261
25.23 rewind(). . . . . . . . . . .  . 262
25.24 fflush(). . . . . . . . . . .  . 263
25.25 Low Level Filing Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
25.26 File descriptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
25.27 open() . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 264
25.28 close() . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 265
25.29 creat() . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 265
25.30 read() . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 266
25.31 write() . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 266
25.32 lseek() . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 267
25.33 unlink() and remove() . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
25.34 Example . . . . . . . . . .  . . 268
25.35 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 274
26 Structures and Unions . . . . . . . . . .  277
26.1 Organization: Black Box Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
26.2 struct . . . . . . . . . . 278
26.3 Declarations . . . . . . . . . .  279
26.4 Scope . . . . . . . . . . 281
26.5 Using Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
26.6 Arrays of Structures . . . . . . . . . . . 283
26.7 Example. . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 283
26.8 Structures of Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
26.9 Pointers to Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
26.10 Example . . . . . . . . . .  . . 288
26.11 Pre-initializing Static Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . 290
26.12 Creating Memory for Dynamical struct Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
26.13 Unions . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 292
26.13.1 Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
26.13.2 Using unions . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
26.14 Questions . . . . . . . . . .  . 294
27 Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . 297
27.1 Data Structure Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
27.2 The Tools: Structures, Pointers and Dynamic Memory . . . . . . 300
27.3 Programme For Building Data Structures . . . . . . . . . .  301
27.4 Setting Up A Data Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
27.5 Example Structures . . . . . . . . . . . 303
27.6 Questions. . . . . . . . . . .  . . 304
28 Recursion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
28.1 Functions and The Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
28.2 Levels and Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
28.3 Tame Recursion and Self-Similarity . . . . . . . . . . 312
28.4 Simple Example without a Data Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
28.5 Simple Example With a Data Structure . . . . . . . . . .  . . 314
28.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Recursion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
28.7 Recursion and Global Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
28.8 Questions. . . . . . . . . . .  . . 317
29 Example Programs . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 319
29.1 Statistical Data Handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
29.1.1 The Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
29.1.2 Insert/Overwrite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
29.1.3 Quitting Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
29.1.4 The Program Listing. . . . . . . . . . . . 320
29.2 Listing . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 322
29.3 Variable Cross Referencer . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
29.3.1 Listing Cref.c . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
29.3.2 Output of Cross Referencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
29.3.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
30 Errors and debugging . . . . . . . . . .  . 353
30.1 Compiler Trappable Errors . . . . . . . . . . . 353
30.1.1 Missing semicolon; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
30.1.2 Missing closing brace }. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
30.1.3 Mistyping Upper/Lower Case . . . . . . . . . . . 353
30.1.4 Missing quote " . . . . . . . . . . 354
30.1.5 Variable not declared or scope wrong . . . . . . . . . .  354
30.1.6 Using a function or assignment inside a macro . . . . . . . . . 354
30.1.7 Forgetting to declare a function which is not type int . . . 354
30.1.8 Type mismatch in expressions . . . . . . . . . . 355
30.2 Errors not trappable by a compiler (run time errors) . . . . . . . . 355
30.2.1 Confusion of = and ==. . . . . . . . . . . 355
30.2.2 Missing & in scanf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
30.2.3 Confusing C++ and ++C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
30.2.4 Unwarranted assumptions about storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
30.2.5 The number of actual and formal parameters does not match
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
30.2.6 The conversion string in scanf/printf is wrong . . . . . . . 357
30.2.7 Accidental confusion of int, short and char . . . . . . . . . . 359
30.2.8 Arrays out of bounds . . . . . . . . . . . 359
30.2.9 Mathematical Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
30.2.10 Uncoordinated Output using bu ered I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
30.2.11 Global Variables and Recursion . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 360
30.3 Tracing Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
30.3.1 Locating a problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
30.4 Pathological Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
30.5 Porting Programs between computers . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 361
30.6 Questions. . . . . . . . . . .  . . 362
31 Summary of C. . . . . . . . . . . . 365
31.1 Reserved Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
31.2 Preprocessor Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
31.3 Header Files and Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . 366
31.4 Constants . . . . . . . . . .  . . 366
31.5 Primitive Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
31.6 Storage Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
31.7 Identifiers . . . . . . . . . .  . . 367
31.8 Statements . . . . . . . . . .  . 368
31.9 Character Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
31.10 Special Control Characters . . . . . . . . . . 370
31.11 Input/Output Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
31.12 printf conversion specifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
31.13 scanf conversion specifers . . . . . . . . . . 372
31.14 Maths Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
31.15 goto . . . . . . . . . . 373
Appendix A All the Reserved Words . . . . . . . 375
Appendix B Three Languages: Words and
Symbols Compared . . . . . . . . . .  . . . 377
Appendix C Character Conversion Table . . . 379
Appendix D Emacs style file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Appendix E Answers to questions. . . . . . . . . . 385
Index . . . . . . . . . . . 393.

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Resource: http://www.iu.hio.no/~mark/lectures/C-Tut-4.02.pdf
Posted By : Vanessa Cris
On date : 07.28.08

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