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C/C++ Language Reference (C++ PDF)

This C++ tutorial covers the details of C/C++ Language Reference.In this PDF couers the C/C++ Language Reference describes the syntax, semantics, and IBM implementation of the C and C++ programming languages. Syntax and semantics constitute a complete specification of a programming language, but complete implementations can differ because of extensions. The IBM implementations of Standard C and Standard C++ attest to the organic nature of programming languages, reflecting pragmatic considerations and advances in programming techniques, which are factors that influence growth and change. The extensions in IBM C and C++ also reflect the changing needs of modern programming environments.

Contents
About This Reference . . . . . . . . vii
The IBM Language Extensions. . . . . . . . viii
FeaturesRelatedtoGNUCandC++ . . . . viii
Highlighting Conventions. . . . . . . . . . ix
How to Read the Syntax Diagrams. . . . . . . ix
Chapter 1. Scope and Linkage . . . . . 1
Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
LocalScope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Function Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Function Prototype Scope . . . . . . . . . 3
Global Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ClassScope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Name Spaces of Identifiers . . . . . . . . 4
NameHiding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Program Linkage. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Internal Linkage . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
External Linkage . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
No Linkage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Linkage Specifications — Linking to Non-C++
Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
NameMangling . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Chapter 2. Lexical Elements . . . . . 11
Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Source Program Character Set . . . . . . . . 11
EscapeSequences . . . . . . . . . . . 12
The Unicode Standard. . . . . . . . . . 13
TrigraphSequences. . . . . . . . . . . 13
Multibyte Characters . . . . . . . . . . 14
Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Reserved Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . 16
Case Sensitivity and Special Characters in
Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Predefined Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . 17
Keywords. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Alternative Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Literals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
BooleanLiterals . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Integer Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Floating-Point Literals. . . . . . . . . . 23
Character Literals . . . . . . . . . . . 24
String Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Compound Literals. . . . . . . . . . . 26
Chapter 3. Declarations . . . . . . . 29
Declaration Overview . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Variable Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Tentative Definitions . . . . . . . . . . 31
Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Storage Class Specifiers . . . . . . . . . . 32
auto Storage Class Specifier . . . . . . . . 33
extern Storage Class Specifier . . . . . . . 34
mutable Storage Class Specifier. . . . . . . 36
register Storage Class Specifier . . . . . . . 36
static Storage Class Specifier. . . . . . . . 37
typedef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Type Specifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
TypeNames . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Type Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
CompatibleTypes . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Simple Type Specifiers. . . . . . . . . . 43
Compound Types . . . . . . . . . . . 48
ComplexTypes . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Type Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
The volatile Type Qualifier . . . . . . . . 67
The const Type Qualifier . . . . . . . . . 68
The restrict Type Qualifier . . . . . . . . 69
The asm Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Incomplete Types . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Chapter 4. Declarators . . . . . . . . 72
Initializers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Declaring Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Assigning Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Initializing Pointers. . . . . . . . . . . 75
Using Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Pointer Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Declaring Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Initializing Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Function Specifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Initializing References . . . . . . . . . . 87
Chapter 5. Expressions and Operators 89
Operator Precedence and Associativity . . . . . 89
Lvalues and Rvalues . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Primary Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Identifier Expressions . . . . . . . . . . 95
Integer Constant Expressions . . . . . . . 96
Parenthesized Expressions ( ) . . . . . . . 96
C++ScopeResolutionOperator ::. . . . . . 97
Postfix Expressions. . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Function Call Operator ( ) . . . . . . . . 98
Array Subscripting Operator [ ] . . . . . . 100
DotOperator .. . . . . . . . . . . . 102
ArrowOperator -> . . . . . . . . . . 102
ThetypeidOperator . . . . . . . . . . 102
static_cast Operator . . . . . . . . . . 104
reinterpret_cast Operator . . . . . . . . 105
const_castOperator . . . . . . . . . . 106
dynamic_cast Operator . . . . . . . . . 107
Unary Expressions. . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Increment++ . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Decrement-- . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Unary Plus + . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Unary Minus -. . . . . . . . . . . . 111
LogicalNegation!. . . . . . . . . . . 111
BitwiseNegation~ . . . . . . . . . . 111
Address & . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Indirection *. . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
alignof Operator . . . . . . . . . . . 113
sizeofOperator. . . . . . . . . . . . 113
typeofOperator . . . . . . . . . . . 115
C++newOperator . . . . . . . . . . 115
C++ delete Operator . . . . . . . . . . 119
Cast Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Binary Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Multiplication *. . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Division / . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Remainder% . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Addition + . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Subtraction - . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
BitwiseLeftandRightShift<<>> . . . . . 124
Relational < > <= >=. . . . . . . . . . 125
Equality == != . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
BitwiseAND&. . . . . . . . . . . . 127
BitwiseExclusiveOR^ . . . . . . . . . 128
BitwiseInclusiveOR| . . . . . . . . . 128
LogicalAND&& . . . . . . . . . . . 129
LogicalOR|| . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
C++ Pointer to Member Operators .* ->* . . . 130
Conditional Expressions. . . . . . . . . . 130
Type of Conditional C Expressions . . . . . 131
Type of Conditional C++ Expressions . . . . 132
Examples of Conditional Expressions . . . . 132
Assignment Expressions. . . . . . . . . . 132
SimpleAssignment=. . . . . . . . . . 133
Compound Assignment . . . . . . . . . 134
Comma Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . 135
C++ throw Expressions . . . . . . . . . . 136
Chapter 6. Implicit Type Conversions 137
IntegralandFloating-PointPromotions. . . . . 137
Standard Type Conversions. . . . . . . . . 138
Lvalue-to-Rvalue Conversions. . . . . . . 139
Boolean Conversions. . . . . . . . . . 139
Integral Conversions . . . . . . . . . . 139
Floating-Point Conversions. . . . . . . . 140
Pointer Conversions . . . . . . . . . . 140
Reference Conversions . . . . . . . . . 142
Pointer-to-Member Conversions . . . . . . 142
Qualification Conversions . . . . . . . . 142
Function Argument Conversions . . . . . . 143
Other Conversions . . . . . . . . . . 143
Arithmetic Conversions . . . . . . . . . . 144
The explicit Keyword. . . . . . . . . . . 145
Chapter 7. Functions . . . . . . . . 147
C++ Enhancements to C Functions . . . . . . 147
Function Declarations . . . . . . . . . . 148
C++ Function Declarations . . . . . . . . 150
Function Attributes . . . . . . . . . . 151
Examples of Function Declarations . . . . . 153
Function Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Ellipsis and void . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Examples of Function Definitions. . . . . . 157
The main() Function . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Argumentstomain . . . . . . . . . . 159
Example of Arguments to main . . . . . . 160
Calling Functions and Passing Arguments. . . . 161
Passing Arguments by Value . . . . . . . 162
Passing Arguments by Reference. . . . . . 163
DefaultArgumentsinC++Functions . . . . . 164
Restrictions on Default Arguments . . . . . 165
Evaluating Default Arguments . . . . . . 166
Function Return Values . . . . . . . . . . 166
Using References as Return Types . . . . . 167
AllocationandDeallocationFunctions . . . . . 167
Pointers to Functions. . . . . . . . . . . 169
InlineFunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Chapter 8. Statements . . . . . . . 173
Labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Locally Declared Labels . . . . . . . . . 174
Expression Statements . . . . . . . . . . 174
Resolving Ambiguous Statements in C++ . . . 175
BlockStatement . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
ifStatement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
switch Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
whileStatement . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
doStatement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
forStatement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
breakStatement . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
continueStatement . . . . . . . . . . . 186
returnStatement . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Value of a return Expression and Function Value 188
gotoStatement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
NullStatement. . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Chapter 9. Preprocessor Directives 191
Preprocessor Overview . . . . . . . . . . 191
Preprocessor Directive Format. . . . . . . . 192
Macro Definition and Expansion (#define). . . . 192
Object-Like Macros . . . . . . . . . . 193
Function-LikeMacros . . . . . . . . . 193
Scope of Macro Names (#undef) . . . . . . . 197
#Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Macro Concatenation with the ## Operator . . . 199
Preprocessor Error Directive (#error). . . . . . 199
Preprocessor Warning Directive (#warning) . . 199
FileInclusion(#include). . . . . . . . . . 200
Specialized File Inclusion (#include_next) . . . . 201
ISO Standard Predefined Macro Names . . . . 201
Conditional Compilation Directives . . . . . . 202
#if, #elif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
#ifdef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
#ifndef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
#else . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
#endif. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Examples of Conditional Compilation Directives 206
Line Control (#line) . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Null Directive (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Pragma Directives (#pragma) . . . . . . . . 208
Standard Pragmas. . . . . . . . . . . 208
The _Pragma Operator . . . . . . . . . 209
Chapter 10. Namespaces . . . . . . 211
Defining Namespaces. . . . . . . . . . . 211
Declaring Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . 211
CreatingaNamespaceAlias . . . . . . . . 211
Creating an Alias for a Nested Namespace . . . 212
ExtendingNamespaces . . . . . . . . . . 212
Namespaces and Overloading. . . . . . . . 213
Unnamed Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . 213
Namespace Member Definitions . . . . . . . 215
Namespaces and Friends . . . . . . . . . 215
Using Directive. . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
The using Declaration and Namespaces . . . . 217
Explicit Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Chapter 11. Overloading. . . . . . . 219
Overloading Functions . . . . . . . . . . 219
Restrictions on Overloaded Functions . . . . 220
Overloading Operators . . . . . . . . . . 222
Overloading Unary Operators. . . . . . . 223
Overloading Binary Operators. . . . . . . 224
Overloading Assignments . . . . . . . . 224
Overloading Function Calls. . . . . . . . 226
Overloading Subscripting . . . . . . . . 227
Overloading Class Member Access . . . . . 228
Overloading Increment and Decrement. . . . 228
OverloadResolution . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Implicit Conversion Sequences . . . . . . 230
Resolving Addresses of Overloaded Functions 231
Chapter 12. Classes . . . . . . . . 233
Declaring Class Types . . . . . . . . . . 233
Using Class Objects . . . . . . . . . . 234
Classes and Structures . . . . . . . . . . 236
ScopeofClassNames . . . . . . . . . . 237
Incomplete Class Declarations. . . . . . . 237
Nested Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Local Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
LocalTypeNames. . . . . . . . . . . 241
Chapter 13. Class Members and
Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Class Member Lists . . . . . . . . . . . 243
DataMembers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
MemberFunctions . . . . . . . . . . . 245
const and volatile Member Functions . . . . 246
VirtualMemberFunctions . . . . . . . . 246
Special Member Functions . . . . . . . . 247
MemberScope . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Pointers to Members . . . . . . . . . . . 248
ThethisPointer . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
StaticMembers. . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Using the Class Access Operators with Static
Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
StaticDataMembers . . . . . . . . . . 254
StaticMemberFunctions . . . . . . . . 256
Member Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Friend Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Friend Access . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Chapter 14. Inheritance . . . . . . . 265
Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Inherited Member Access . . . . . . . . . 270
Protected Members . . . . . . . . . . 270
Access Control of Base Class Members. . . . 271
The using Declaration and Class Members . . . 272
Overloading Member Functions from Base and
Derived Classes . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Changing the Access of a Class Member . . . 275
Multiple Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Virtual Base Classes . . . . . . . . . . 278
Multiple Access . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Ambiguous Base Classes . . . . . . . . 279
VirtualFunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Ambiguous Virtual Function Calls . . . . . 286
Virtual Function Access . . . . . . . . . 288
Abstract Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Chapter 15. Special Member
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Constructors and Destructors Overview . . . . 291
Constructors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
DefaultConstructors . . . . . . . . . . 293
Explicit Initialization with Constructors . . . 294
Initializing Base Classes and Members . . . . 296
Construction Order of Derived Class Objects 299
Destructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
FreeStore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Temporary Objects . . . . . . . . . . . 307
User-Defined Conversions . . . . . . . . . 308
Conversion by Constructor. . . . . . . . 310
Conversion Functions. . . . . . . . . . 311
Copy Constructors . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Copy Assignment Operators . . . . . . . . 313
Chapter 16. Templates . . . . . . . 318
Template Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Type Template Parameters . . . . . . . . 318
Non-Type Template Parameters . . . . . . 319
TemplateTemplateParameters . . . . . . 319
Default Arguments for Template Parameters . . 320
TemplateArguments. . . . . . . . . . . 320
TemplateTypeArguments . . . . . . . . 321
TemplateNon-TypeArguments . . . . . . 321
TemplateTemplateArguments . . . . . . 323
ClassTemplates . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Class Template Declarations and Definitions . . 326
StaticDataMembersandTemplates. . . . . 326
MemberFunctionsofClassTemplates . . . . 327
FriendsandTemplates . . . . . . . . . 327
Function Templates . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Template Argument Deduction . . . . . . 330
Overloading Function Templates . . . . . . 335
Partial Ordering of Function Templates. . . . 336
TemplateInstantiation . . . . . . . . . . 337
Implicit Instantiation . . . . . . . . . . 337
Explicit Instantiation . . . . . . . . . . 338
Template Specialization . . . . . . . . . . 339
Explicit Specialization . . . . . . . . . 339
Partial Specialization . . . . . . . . . . 344
Name Binding and Dependent Names . . . . . 347
ThetypenameKeyword. . . . . . . . . . 348
The Keyword template as Qualifier . . . . . . 348
Chapter 17. Exception Handling . . . 351
ThetryKeyword . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Nested Try Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . 353
catchBlocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Function try block Handlers . . . . . . . 354
ArgumentsofcatchBlocks. . . . . . . . 357
Matching between Exceptions Thrown and
Caught . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
OrderofCatching. . . . . . . . . . . 358
The throw Expression . . . . . . . . . . 359
RethrowinganException . . . . . . . . 360
StackUnwinding . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Exception Specifications. . . . . . . . . . 362
Special Exception Handling Functions . . . . . 365
unexpected() . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
terminate() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
set_unexpected() and set_terminate() . . . . 367
Example of Using the Exception Handling
Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Appendix A. The IBM C Language
Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Orthogonals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Existing IBM C Extensions with Individual
Option Controls . . . . . . . . . . . 371
IBM C Extensions: C99 Features as Extensions to
C89. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
IBMCExtensionsRelatedtoGNUC . . . . 372
Non-Orthogonals . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Existing IBM C Extensions with Individual
Option Controls . . . . . . . . . . . 373
IBM C Extensions: C99 Features as Extensions to
C89. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
IBMCExtensionsRelatedtoGNUC . . . . 374
Appendix B. The IBM C++ Language
Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Orthogonals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
IBM C++ Extensions for Compatibility with C99 375
IBM C++ Extensions Related to GNU C . . . 376
IBM C++ Extensions Related to GNU C++ . . 376
Non-Orthogonals . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
IBM C++ Extensions for Compatibility with C99 376
IBM C++ Extensions Related to GNU C . . . 377
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Programming Interface Information . . . . . . 381
TrademarksandServiceMarks . . . . . . . 381
Industry Standards . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383.

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Resource: http://www.ess.uci.edu/esmf/ibm_compiler_docs/sc094957.pdf
Posted By : Tara
On date : 07.31.08

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Latest added CPP Tutorials

The C++ Standard Library Tutorial and Reference
Programming with the C++ Standard Library can certainly be difficult, but Nicolai Josuttis's The C++ Standard Library provides one of the best available guides to using the built-in features of C++ effectively.
Accelerated C++ Practical Programming by Example
If you don't have a lot of time, but still want to learn the latest in C++, you don't have to learn C first. You might learn more by digging into current language features and classes from the very beginning. That's the approach that's offered by Accelerated C++, a text that delves into more advanced C++ features like templates and Standard Template Library (STL) collection classes early on. This book arguably can get a motivated beginning programmer into C++ more quickly than other available tutorials.
Learn Objective C on the Mac Tutorial Book
Take your coding skills to the next level with this extensive guide to Objective–C, the native programming language for developing sophisticated software applications for Mac OS X.
Effective C++ 55 Specific Ways to Improve Your Programs and Designs
This exceptionally useful text offers Scott Myers's expertise in C++ class design and programming tips. The second edition incorporates recent advances to C++ included in the ISO standard, including namespaces and built-in template classes, and is required reading for any working C++ developer.
C++ Primer Plus -5th edition tutorial Book
If you are new to C++ programming, C++ Primer Plus, Fifth Edition is a friendly and easy-to-use self-study guide.
C Programming Language - Tutorial Book
By using this Book any one can easily learn C Programming Language.This is the amazon review about this book "Just about every C programmer I respect learned C from this book. Unlike many of the 1,000 page doorstops stuffed with CD-ROMs that have become popular, this volume is concise and powerful (if somewhat dangerous) -- like C itself. And it was written by Kernighan himself. Need we say more?"
A C-language binding for PSL (C++ PDF)
This C++ tutorial covers the details of A C-language binding for PS.In this PDF covers the Assertions Based Verification (ABV) is an approach that is used by hardware design engineers to specify the functional properties of logic designs. Two popular languages based on ABV are the Property Specification Language PSL and the System- Verilog Assertion system SVA [1]. PSL is now an IEEE standard – P1850 [2]. PSL specifications can be used both for the design and for the verification processes. A single language can be used first for the functional specification of the design and later on as an input to the tools that verify the implementation. The backbone of PSL is Temporal Logic [3], [4]. Temporal Logic can describe the execution of systems in terms of logic formulas augmented by time-sequencing operators.
Objective-C Language and GNUstep Base Library Programming Manual (c++ pdf)
This C++ tutorial covers the details of Objective-C Language and GNUstep Base Library Programming Manual. In this PDF covers the aim of this manual is to introduce you to the Objective-C language and the GNUstep development environment, in particular the Base library. The manual is organised to give you a tutorial introduction to the language and APIs, by using examples whenever possible, rather than providing a lengthy abstract description. While Objective-C is not a diffcult language to learn or use, some of the terms may be unfamiliar, especially to those that have not programmed using an object-oriented programming language before. Whenever possible, concepts will be explained in simple terms rather than in more advanced programming terms, and comparisons to other languages will be used to aid in illustration.
How to Program an 8-bit Microcontroller Using C language (C++ PDF)
This C++ tutorial covers the details of How to Program an 8-bit Microcontroller Using C language. In this PDF covers the Traditional,most 8-BIT embedded Programs have been written in assembly language however, due to a variety of reasons.
PTU C Language Programmers Interface Model PTU-CPI
This C++ tutorial covers the details of PTU C Language Programmers Interface Model PTU-CPI.In this PDF couers the PTU C Language Interface (PTU-CPI) allows you to write custom programs that directly control PTU-D46-xx and PTU-D300-xx pan-tilts. Some feature highlights of the C Language Interface include: