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z/OS V1R6.0 C/C++ Language Reference (C++ PDF)

This C++ tutorial covers the details of z/OS V1R6.0 C/C++ Language Reference.In this PDF couers the C/C++ Language Reference describes the syntax, semantics, and IBM implementation of the C and C++ programming languages. Syntax and semantics constitute a complete specification of a programming language, but conforming implementations of a language specification can differ because of language extensions. The IBM implementations of C and C++ attest to the organic nature of programming languages, reflecting pragmatic concerns and advances in programming techniques, which are factors that influence growth and change. The language extensions to C and C++ also reflect the changing needs of the z/OS® programming environment.

Contents
Introduction . xv
About this document . xv
How to read syntax diagrams . xvi
Symbols . xvi
Syntax items . xvi
Syntax examples . xvii
z/OS C/C++ and related publications . xviii
Softcopy documents . xxiii
Softcopy examples . xxiii
z/OS C/C++ on the World Wide Web . xxiii
Where to find more information . xxiv
Accessing z/OS licensed documents on the Internet . xxiv
Using LookAt to look up message explanations . xxiv
About IBM z/OS C/C++ . xxvii
Changes for z/OS V1R6 . xxvii
The C/C++ compilers . xxix
The C language . xxix
The C++ language . xxix
Common features of the z/OS C and C++ compilers . xxix
z/OS C Compiler specific features . xxxi
z/OS C++ Compiler specific features . xxxi
Class libraries . xxxi
Utilities . xxxi
dbx . xxxii
z/OS Language Environment . xxxii
z/OS Language Environment downward compatibility . xxxiii
About prelinking, linking, and binding . xxxiv
Notes on the prelinking process . xxxiv
File format considerations . xxxv
The program management binder . xxxv
z/OS UNIX System Services . xxxvi
z/OS C/C++ Applications with z/OS UNIX System Services C/C++ functions .xxxvii
Input and output . xxxviii
I/O interfaces . xxxviii
File types . xxxviii
Additional I/O features . xxxix
The System Programming C facility . xl
Interaction with other IBM products . xl
Additional features of z/OS C/C++ . xlii
Chapter .1 Scope and Linkage . 1
Scope . 2
Local Scope . 3
Function Scope . 3
Function Prototype Scope . 3
Global Scope . 3
Class Scope . 4
Example of Scope in C . 4
Name Spaces of Identifiers . 5
Name Hiding . 6
Program Linkage . 7
Internal Linkage . 7
External Linkage . 8
No Linkage . 8
Linkage Specifications — Linking to Non-C++ Programs . 9
Name Mangling . 10
Chapter .2 Lexical Elements . 11
Tokens . 11
Punctuators . 11
Alternative Tokens . 12
Source Program Character Set . 13
Escape Sequences . 14
The Unicode Standard . 15
Trigraph Sequences . 16
Multibyte Characters . 17
Digraph Characters . 17
Comments . 18
Identifiers . 20
Reserved Identifiers . 20
Case Sensitivity and Special Characters in Identifiers . 21
Significant Characters in Identifiers . 21
Keywords . 21
Keywords for language extensions . 22
Alternative Representations of Operators and Punctuators . 22
z/OS C/C++ External Name Mapping . 22
z/OS Long Name Support . 23
Literals . 24
Boolean Literals . 24
Integer Literals . 24
Decimal Integer Literals . 25
Hexadecimal Integer Literals . 26
Octal Integer Literals . 26
Floating-Point Literals . 26
Fixed-Point Decimal Constants (z/OSC Only) . 28
Character Literals . 28
String Literals . 30
String Literals (z/OS) . 31
Chapter 3 Declarations . 33
Declaration Overview . 33
Variable Attributes . 34
The aligned Variable Attribute . 34
Objects . 35
Storage Class Specifiers . 35
auto Storage Class Specifier . 36
extern Storage Class Specifier . 38
extern Storage Class Specifier (z/OSC++ Only) . 40
Controlling External Static (z/OS) . 41
mutable Storage Class Specifier . 42
register Storage Class Specifier . 42
static Storage Class Specifier . 43
typedef . 45
Type Specifiers . 46
Type Names . 47
Compatible Types . 47
Simple Type Specifiers . 49
Boolean Variables . 49
char and wchar_t Type Specifiers . 49
The wchar_t Type Specifier . 50
Floating-Point Variables . 51
Fixed-Point Decimal Data Types (z/OSC Only) . 51
Integer Variables . 52
z/OS Integer Variables . 53
void Type . 54
Compound Types . 55
Structures . 55
Declaring and Defining a Structure . 56
Defining a Structure Variable . 57
Initializing Structures . 57
Declaring Structure Types and Variables in the Same Statement . 58
Declaring and Using Bit Fields in Structures . 59
Alignment of Structures . 62
Alignment of Nested Structures . 62
Declaring a Packed Structure (z/OS C/C++) . 63
Unions . 63
Declaring a Union . 63
Defining a Union Variable . 65
Defining Packed Unions (z/OS) . 65
Anonymous Unions . 66
Alignment of Unions . 67
Enumerations . 69
Declaring an Enumeration Data Type . 69
Enumeration Constants . 70
Defining Enumeration Variables . 70
Defining an Enumeration Type and Enumeration Objects . 71
Type Qualifiers . 72
The const Type Qualifier . 74
The volatile Type Qualifier . 75
z/OS Type Qualifiers . 76
The __callback Qualifier . 76
The __ptr32 Qualifier . 76
The __restrict__ Type Qualifier . 77
The asm Declaration . 78
Incomplete Types . 78
Chapter  4 Declarators . 79
_Packed Qualifier (z/OSC Only) . 80
__cdecl Keyword (z/OSC++ Only) . 81
Semantics of __cdecl . 82
_Export Keyword (z/OS C++ only) . 83
Initializers . 85
C/C++ Data Mapping (z/OS) . 86
Pointers . 87
Declaring Pointers . 87
Assigning Pointers . 88
Initializing Pointers . 88
Restrictions on z/OS C Pointers . 89
Using Pointers . 89
Pointer Arithmetic . 90
Arrays . 92
Declaring Arrays . 92
Initializing Arrays . 94
Function Specifiers . 97
References . 98
Initializing References . 98
Chapter 5 Expressions and Operators . 101
Operator Precedence and Associativity . 102
Lvalues and Rvalues . 105
Type-Based Aliasing . 106
Primary Expressions . 107
Identifier Expressions . 108
Integer Constant Expressions . 108
Parenthesized Expressions ( ) . 109
C++ Scope Resolution Operator :: . 110
Postfix Expressions . 111
Function Call Operator ( ) . 111
Array Subscripting Operator [ ] . 113
Dot Operator . 114
Arrow Operator −> . 114
The typeid Operator . 115
static_cast Operator . 116
reinterpret_cast Operator . 117
const_cast Operator . 118
dynamic_cast Operator . 119
Unary Expressions . 121
Increment ++ . 122
Decrement −− . 122
Unary Plus + . 123
Unary Minus − . 123
Logical Negation ! . 123
Bitwise Negation ~ . 123
Address & . 124
Indirection * . 125
alignof Operator . 125
sizeof Operator . 126
typeof Operator . 127
digitsof and precisionof (z/OSC Only) . 128
C++ new Operator . 128
Initializing Objects Created with the new Operator . 130
set_new_handler() — Set Behavior for new Failure . 131
C++ delete Operator . 132
Cast Expressions . 133
Binary Expressions . 134
Multiplication * . 135
Division / . 135
Remainder % . 136
Addition + . 136
Subtraction − . 136
Bitwise Left and Right Shift <<>>. 137
Relational <><=>= . 137
Equality ==!= . 138
Bitwise AND & . 139
Bitwise Exclusive OR ^ . 140
Bitwise Inclusive OR | . 140
Logical AND && . 141
Logical OR || . 142
C++ Pointer to Member Operators * −>* . 143
Conditional Expressions . 143
Type of Conditional C Expressions . 144
Type of Conditional C++ Expressions . 144
Examples of Conditional Expressions . 144
Assignment Expressions . 145
Simple Assignment = . 145
Compound Assignment . 146
Comma Expressions . 147
C++ throw Expressions . 149
Chapter 6 Implicit Type Conversions . 151
Integral and Floating-Point Promotions . 151
Standard Type Conversions . 152
Lvalue-to-Rvalue Conversions . 152
Boolean Conversions . 153
Integral Conversions . 153
Signed-Integer Conversions (z/OS) . 154
Floating-Point Conversions . 154
Pointer Conversions . 154
Reference Conversions . 156
Pointer-to-Member Conversions . 156
Qualification Conversions . 156
Function Argument Conversions . 156
Other Conversions . 157
Arithmetic Conversions . 158
The explicit Keyword . 158
Chapter 7  Functions . 161
C++ Enhancements to C Functions . 161
Function Declarations . 162
C++ Function Declarations . 164
Multiple Function Declarations . 164
Parameter Names in Function Declarations . 165
Examples of Function Declarations . 165
Function Definitions . 166
Ellipsis and void . 170
Examples of Function Definitions . 171
The main() Function . 172
Arguments to main . 172
Example of Arguments to main . 172
Calling Functions and Passing Arguments . 173
Command-Line Arguments (z/OS) . 174
Under z/OS Batch . 174
Under IMS . 175
Under CICS . 175
Under TSO Command . 175
Under TSO Call . 175
Under z/OS UNIX System Services Shell . 175
Passing Arguments by Value . 176
Passing Arguments by Reference . 176
Default Arguments in C++ Functions . 178
Restrictions on Default Arguments . 179
Evaluating Default Arguments . 180
Function Return Values . 180
Using References as Return Types . 181
Allocation and Deallocation Functions . 181
Pointers to Functions . 183
Inline Functions . 184
Chapter 8 Statements . 187
Labels . 187
Expression Statements . 188
Resolving Ambiguous Statements in C++ . 188
Block Statement . 189
if Statement . 190
switch Statement . 192
while Statement . 195
do Statement . 196
for Statement . 197
break Statement . 199
continue Statement . 199
return Statement . 201
Value of a return Expression and Function Value . 202
goto Statement . 202
Null Statement . 203
Chapter 9 Preprocessor Directives . 205
Preprocessor Overview . 205
Preprocessor Directive Format . 206
Macro Definition and Expansion (#define) . 206
Object-Like Macros . 207
Function-Like Macros . 207
Scope of Macro Names (#undef) . 210
# Operator . 211
Macro Concatenation with the ## Operator . 212
Preprocessor Error Directive (#error) . 212
File Inclusion (#include) . 213
ISO Standard Predefined Macro Names . 214
z/OS C/C++ Predefined Macro Names . 215
Conditional Compilation Directives . 224
#if, #elif . 225
#ifdef . 226
#ifndef . 226
#else . 227
#endif . 227
Line Control (#line) . 228
Null Directive (#) . 229
Pragma Directives (#pragma) . 230
z/OS Pragma Directives. 230
Restrictions on z/OS #pragma Directives . 233
IPA Considerations . 234
chars . 234
checkout . 235
comment . 235
IPA Considerations for the #pragma comment . 236
convert . 236
convlit . 238
csect . 238
IPA Considerations for the #pragma csect . 240
define (z/OSC++ Only) . 240
disjoint . 240
enum . 242
environment (z/OSC Only) . 243
export . 243
IPA Considerations for the #pragma export . 244
filetag . 244
implementation (z/OS C++ Only) . 244
info (z/OS C++ Only) . 245
inline (z/OS C Only) . 245
IPA Considerations for the #pragma inline . 246
Example . 246
isolated_call . 247
IPA Considerations for the #pragma isolated_call . 248
langlvl . 248
leaves . 249
IPA Considerations for the #pragma leaves . 250
Effect on IPA Link Step . 250
linkage (z/OS C Only) . 250
longname . 252
IPA Considerations for the #pragma longname . 253
map . 253
#pragma map for z/OS C . 253
#pragma map for z/OS C++ . 254
IPA Considerations for the #pragma map . 254
margins . 255
namemangling (z/OSC++ Only) . 255
namemanglingrule(z/OS C++ Only) . 257
noinline . 257
IPA Considerations for the #pragma noinline . 258
object_model (z/OSC++ Only) . 258
options (z/OSC Only) . 259
IPA Considerations for the #pragma options . 260
option_override . 260
IPA Considerations for the #pragma option_override . 262
pack . 262
page (z/OSC Only) . 263
pagesize (z/OS C Only) . 264
IPA Considerations for the #pragma pagesize . 264
priority (z/OS C++ Only) . 264
reachable . 264
IPA Considerations for the #pragma reachable . 265
Effect on IPA Link Step . 265
report (z/OSC++ Only) . 265
runopts . 266
IPA Considerations for the #pragma runopts . 266
sequence . 267
#pragma sequence for z/OS C . 267
#pragma sequence for z/OS C++ . 267
skip (z/OS C Only) . 268
strings . 268
IPA Considerations for the #pragma strings . 269
subtitle (z/OSCOnly) . 269
target (z/OS C Only) . 269
IPA Considerations for the #pragma target . 270
title (z/OSC Only) . 270
unroll . 270
variable . 271
wsizeof . 272
Using the WSIZEOF compile option and #pragma wsizeof . 273
|IPA Considerations for the z/OS #pragma wsizeof . 273
Chapter 10 Namespaces . 275
Defining Namespaces . 275
Declaring Namespaces . 275
Creating a Namespace Alias . 275
Creating an Alias for a Nested Namespace . 276
Extending Namespaces . 276
Namespaces and Overloading . 277
Unnamed Namespaces . 277
Namespace Member Definitions . 279
Namespaces and Friends . 279
Using Directive . 280
The using Declaration and Namespaces . 280
Explicit Access . 281
Chapter 11 Overloading . 283
Overloading Functions . 283
Restrictions on Overloaded Functions . 284
Overloading Operators . 285
Overloading Unary Operators . 287
Overloading Increment and Decrement . 287
Overloading Binary Operators . 289
Overloading Assignments . 289
Overloading Function Calls . 291
Overloading Subscripting . 292
Overloading Class Member Access . 293
Overload Resolution . 293
Implicit Conversion Sequences . 294
Resolving Addresses of Overloaded Functions . 295
Chapter 12 Classes . 297
Declaring Class Types . 297
Using Class Objects . 298
Classes and Structures . 299
Scope of Class Names . 300
Incomplete Class Declarations . 301
Nested Classes . 302
Local Classes . 303
Local Type Names . 304
Chapter 13 Class Members and Friends . 307
Class Member Lists . 307
Data Members . 308
Member Functions . 308
const and  volatile Member Functions . 310
Virtual Member Functions . 310
Special Member Functions . 310
Member Scope . 310
Pointers to Members . 312
The this Pointer . 313
Static Members . 316
Using the Class Access Operators with Static Members . 316
Static Data Members . 317
Static Member Functions . 319
Member Access . 321
Friends . 322
Friend Scope . 325
Friend Access . 327
Chapter 14 Inheritance . 329
Derivation . 331
Inherited Member Access . 334
Protected Members . 334
Access Control of Base Class Members . 335
The using Declaration and Class Members . 336
Overloading Member Functions from Base and Derived Classes . 337
Changing the Access of a Class Member . 339
Multiple Inheritance . 340
Virtual Base Classes . 341
Multiple Access . 342
Ambiguous Base Classes . 343
Virtual Functions . 346
Ambiguous Virtual Function Calls . 350
Virtual Function Access . 351
Abstract Classes . 352
Chapter .15 Special Member Functions . 355
Constructors and Destructors Overview . 355
Constructors . 356
Default Constructors . 357
Explicit Initialization with Constructors . 358
Initializing Base Classes and Members . 359
Construction Order of Derived Class Objects . 363
Destructors . 364
Free Store . 366
Temporary Objects . 371
User-Defined Conversions . 372
Conversion by Constructor . 373
Conversion Functions . 374
Copy Constructors . 375
Copy Assignment Operators . 377
Chapter 16 Templates . 379
Template Parameters . 380
Type Template Parameters . 380
Non-Type Template Parameters . 380
Template Template Parameters . 381
Default Arguments for Template Parameters . 381
Template Arguments . 382
Template Type Arguments . 382
Template Non-Type Arguments . 382
Template Template Arguments . 384
Class Templates . 385
Class Template Declarations and Definitions . 387
Static Data Members and Templates . 387
Member Functions of Class Templates . 388
Friends and Templates . 388
Function Templates . 389
Template Argument Deduction . 390
Deducing Type Template Arguments . 393
Deducing Non-Type Template Arguments . 395
Overloading Function Templates . 396
Partial Ordering of Function Templates . 396
Template Instantiation . 397
Implicit Instantiation . 397
Explicit Instantiation . 399
Template Specialization . 400
Explicit Specialization . 400
Definition and Declaration of Explicit Specializations . 401
Explicit Specialization and Scope . 401
Class Members of Explicit Specializations . 401
Explicit Specialization of Function Templates . 402
Explicit Specialization of Members of Class Templates . 403
Partial Specialization . 404
Template Parameter and Argument Lists of Partial Specializations . 405
Matching of Class Template Partial Specializations . 406
Name Binding and Dependent Names . 406
The typename Keyword . 407
The Keyword template as Qualifier . 408
Chapter  17 Exception Handling . 411
The try Keyword . 411
Nested Try Blocks . 413
 catch Blocks . 413
Function try block Handlers . 414
Arguments of catch Blocks . 417
Matching between Exceptions Thrown and Caught . 417
Order of Catching . 418
The throw Expression . 419
Rethrowing an Exception . 419
Stack Unwinding . 421
Exception Specifications . 422
Special Exception Handling Functions . 425
unexpected() . 425
terminate() . 426
set_unexpected() and set_terminate() . 427
Example Using the Exception Handling Functions . 428
Appendix A C and C++ Compatibility on the z/OS Platform . 431
Constructs Found in Both C++ and C . 431
Character Array Initialization . 431
Class and typedef Names . 431
Class and Scope Declarations . 431
const Object Initialization . 432
Definitions . 432
Definitions within Return or Argument Types . 432
Enumerator Type . 432
Enumeration Type . 432
Function Declarations . 432
Functions with an Empty Argument List . 432
Global Constant Linkage . 432
Jump Statements . 432
Keywords . 433
main() Recursion . 433
Names of Nested Classes . 433
Pointers to void . 433
Prototype Declarations . 433
Return without Declared Value . 433
__STDC__ Macro . 433
typedefs in Class Declarations . 433
Interactions with Other Products . 434
Appendix B Common Usage C Language Level for the z/OS Platform .435
 Appendix C Conforming to POSIX 10031 . 437
Appendix D Supporting ISO Standards . 439
Identifiers . 439
Characters . 439
String Conversion . 440
Integers . 440
Floating-Point . 441
Arrays and Pointers . 441
Registers . 442
Structures, Unions, Enumerations, Bit Fields . 442
Declarators . 442
Statements . 442
Preprocessing Directives . 443
Library Functions . 443
Error Handling . 444
Signals . 445
Translation Limits . 445
Streams, Records, and Files . 446
Memory Management . 447
Environment . 447
Localization . 447
Time . 448
Appendix E Accessibility . 449
Using assistive technologies . 449
Keyboard navigation of the user interface . 449
z/OS information . 449
Notices . 451
Programming Interface Information . 452
Trademarks . 453
Industry Standards . 453
Index . 455.

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Resource: http://ulita.ms.mff.cuni.cz/pub/predn/swi119/C++/cbclr140.pdf
Posted By : Diego Pessoa
On date : 07.31.08

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